The Various Kinds of Loan Workouts

October 31st, 2014

It is not easy nowadays to be in a financial bind especially if the person has a home to pay for. If one’s mortgage is not restructured, this means the person may lose his or her home to foreclosure. This problem is prevalent nowadays, even in Long Island, New York. It is also essential for a person with financial difficulty to avail of loan workouts, one of which is a Long Island loan modification or alteration. A loan workout is used by a borrower and a servicing/lending institution to avoid foreclosing the property that is secured by a delinquent deed of trust/mortgage.

Loss mitigation is when a third party helps the homeowner. It works to agree on mortgage or loan terms for the homeowner and will also prevent looming foreclosure. Such terms are normally obtained by short sale negotiation, a Long Island loan modification or alteration, cash for keys negotiation, deed in lieu of foreclosure, or other kind of loan workout like a partial claim loan.

These options all work to help out the borrower to avoid foreclosure on his or her home. These options stabilize the loss risk the investor/lender is in danger of materializing. The various options can be availed by homeowners in getting the homeowner to timely pay and fix the potential loss the investor/lender projects that incur during the foreclosure process and the property’s auction sale.

Long Island Loan ModificationA Long Island loan modification is when a mortgage of the homeowner is modified and both homeowner and lender are bound by the modified terms. Some of the more general modifications are reducing interest rates, making interest rates fixed instead of variable, lowering the principal balance, forgiveness of payment fees and defaults, extending to loan period, and recapitalization of the accrued outstanding fees, interest, principle, or a combination of such.

Another kind of loss workout is deed in lieu (DIL). This is a disposition option wherein a borrower deeds collateral property voluntarily in return for a release from all mortgage obligations. The DIL may not be taken from borrowers who can pay their mortgage obligations.

In a short refinance, the lender or banker reduces the mortgage balance to allow the homeowner to refinance with a new banker or lender. Such principal reduction is meant to comply with the Loan-to-Value regulations of the new banker or lender. In a short sale, the lender reduces the mortgage principal balance to allow the homeowner to sell his or her home for the home’s actual market value. It especially is applicable to homeowners who owe more on the mortgage than the property’s value. If there is no principal reduction, the homeowner may not be able to sell his or her home.

Another kind of loss workout is the partial claim. Here, a mortgagee will get funds on a mortgagor’s behalf in an amount needed to reinstate a loan that is delinquent. The mortgagor will then draft a promissory note and a subordinate mortgage that is payable to the United States HUD (Housing and Urban Development. The ‘partial claim’ or promissory notes currently assess no interest and are not payable or due until the mortgagor either no longer has the property or pays off the initial mortgage.

In a Long Island loan modification or any other loss workout, one should know its benefits. The obvious benefit is the foreclosure prevention as loss mitigation works to either draft a solution that is easy for the homeowner or relieves the mortgage obligation of the homeowner. The lenders would also benefit through mitigating the losses incurred through foreclosure. To understand more about availing of loss workout, one should confer with his or her lawyer to know the available options.

How to Make Digital Signages Visible

October 30th, 2014

In the early days of digital advertising, a number of companies pushed for high advertising revenues in paying for the digital signage network — a promise of giving them wall space and making them rich. But it was easier than done. One must understand the role of digital signage deployment in the overall process and not merely to advertise deployment of signage.

Digital Sign softwareA digital flat screen is not an accessory to create a better appearance in store. It adds to the capability for in-store signage; thus requiring a detailed placement planning. Installing a digital signage network must have planned placement and mounting hardware. A digital screen intends to communicate with customers. Retailers that aim to generate more sales and produce greater impact to the customer must know how to make it visible in order to have a greater opportunity to achieve underlying objectives of placing the signage.

The initial step for display visibility is the preparation and scouting of the best screen location. Screen spotting is looking for the space that has the best opportunities for placing the message. This is to put a wonderful display with high-quality content in a place where customers can view them. It would be a waste of money if displays aren’t visible. Ideal areas in the store are those with high-foot traffic.

From a practical viewpoint, the content should be easily viewed from the store entrance. In-store gateways with displays are immediate areas to educate customers upon entering the store. Seeing promotional information, new products, or emphasizing features of certain products would interest customers to check them out inside the store. This may also invite more people passing by the store. Entrance displays give curiosity to some bystanders who may just want some entertainment. It would give them an idea on what the store offers.

Putting up screens inside the store can be effective in places where customers remain stationary for a long time. These can be near the check-out counters or dressing rooms. People who are queuing are looking for something to do or look at to ease boredom while waiting. Spots like these provide a relaxed and better in-store experience. There would be no dull moment for the customers even while standing and waiting. This is an opportunity to create additional sales and educate customers. This would lead customers to plan the next visit and buy products that interest them as seen onscreen.

Mounting digital screens is sometimes challenging compared to spotting the space. The ideal spot may not fit with the physical structure of the venue. There are variations in ceiling height and room arrangements. An assessment of the space will determine if the standard products would work. If not, an assessment for customized solutions should be done. There are manufacturers with a wide range of mounting hardware to address mounting customization.

In mounting the screen, power and input system requirements must be determined. Consider proper installation of power outlets and possible additional outlets depending on the number of screens. There could be a need to replace existing outlets. This is the part where retailers won’t want to cause inconvenience or a cluttered look around the screen. Consider also the accessibility of the screen. This is to ensure easy service for possible replacement and updates of screens. Regular maintenance of screens and contents make the most desirable impact on the business.

Visibility of the signage should serve its purpose in the store. Spotting the wall and mounting screen are adequate only if the contents complement the products and services. Retailers invest on digital signage networks to support building up brands and creating customer loyalty. These goals are fulfilled when signages are more visible to target markets.

Custom Military Coins for the Navy are a Long and Proud Tradition

October 13th, 2014

Custom military coins for the Navy can be considered as vital reminders of the courage of America’s seagoing forces. The Naval service was first organized in 1775, when the Continental Congress created the Continental Navy, which then consisted of a few ships with Esek Hopkins acting as the commander-in-chief. While challenge coins did not play as vital a role in the history of the Navy as they did the Air Force, recipients of these custom coins still use them as a remembrance of the service’s core values of Honor, Commitment and Courage.

In the Naval service, custom military coins can be used in a number of ways. The most common way is to act as a reward for exemplary performance, where the coin serves as an “Attaboy!” for the sailor. In addition, challenge coins can be given upon completion of basic and officer training as well as by the unit commander upon completion of a tour of duty. The recipients of these coins see them as a proud possession and a sign of accomplishment and usually prominently display their coins in a case. Unless they are still in active service, however, they usually do not carry their coins around unless there is a chance they will be “challenged”.

custom military coinsChallenges are drinking games wherein one of the holders of a challenge coin throws it on a table or on the floor and other recipients must display their coins as well. The ones who cannot display the coin must buy a round of drinks. These are the basic rules although the actual ones may vary slightly depending on the holders. For example, those who don’t have coins may be passed a spare one to spare them.

While the “challenge” of using custom coins is reportedly a proud tradition among holders of challenge coins, some veteran soldiers deny that such a tradition exists since they have never encountered it. Others say that it does exist but they themselves have personally never encountered it, usually because they don’t go into bars or officers’ clubs. Whatever the truth, it is clear that there is some kind of tradition around challenge coins from which they get their name although they may be different depending on the unit that distributed them.

At present, custom military coins for the Navy and other branches of the military continue to be popular, as seen by the many challenge coin minters that have sprouted, some of which are run by actual military veterans. These services make ordering challenge coins easy since they help design the coins by providing assistance from professional designers. Once the final design of the coin has been determined, you can order the number of coins that you want, from a handful to bulk orders.

With advanced technology, challenge coins can also be given features that would have been unimaginable in the past. For example, the faces can be embossed with three-dimensional designs and text that make them look more like a medallion than a traditional coin. They are also available in a variety of metal styles and finishes, ranging from antique gold challenge coins that are meant to look like heirlooms, to shiny silver that resembles a newly-minted coin. Most of all, challenge coins no longer need to be round since custom designs can be chosen, such as coins in the shapes of badges or anchors.

Custom military coins for the Navy and other military branches will continue to be an important tradition in the years to come. And as they are easier and cheaper to produce, expect more commanding officers and units to use these coins as badges of honor as well as ways to build morale and team spirit among their men.

Military Patches: How to Apply Them in 4 Easy Ways!

October 8th, 2014

Iron-on military patches have glue on the back. The glue reacts to heat so that the military patch can be attached to a garment. Below are the various application methods for the patches.

Applying Military Patches – Method 1

1. Place your garment on an ironing board. Make sure that the military patch is flat.

2. Place the military patch on top of your garment. Determine on which area of the garment you should iron the patch. Once you positioned the patch, don’t move it.

3. Heat up the iron by increasing its temperature setting. Adjust the temperature setting until the iron’s heat can be tolerated by the garment.

4. Carefully put a thin towel over the military patch. Press the iron down on the patch for 15 seconds.

5. Remove the iron and lift the thin towel. Gently rub the edge of the military patch to check if it’s completely attached to the garment.

6. If you can slightly lift the military patch from the garment, put another thin towel on the patch. Press the iron on the patch for 10 seconds.

Military PatchesApplying the Patches – Method 2

1. Lay your garment on an ironing board. Determine where you should position the military patch on your preferred garment area.

2. Set the iron’s temperature setting to cotton heat or high heat. Place the iron on the garment area until the area becomes warm. Put the military patch on the garment area. Place the iron on the patch for 1 minute.

3. Remove the iron and use its pointy tip to lift the military patch from the garment. Leave the iron on the patch for 30 seconds if the patch can be lifted.

4. Repeat step 4 until you can no longer lift the military patch.

5. Turn the garment inside out. Lay the garment on the ironing board. Place the iron on the military patch for 1 minute.

6. Let the garment and military patch cool down.

Applying Military Patches – Method 3

1. Place your garment on a flat surface before placing a pillow case on the garment. Lay the pillow case on the area of the garment where you’ll iron the military patch.

2. Set the temperature setting of the iron to cotton heat or high heat. Press the iron on the pillow case for 10 seconds.

3. Remove the iron and lift the pillow case from the garment. Place the military patch on the heated area of the garment.

4. Place the pillow case on the military patch. Press down the iron on the pillow case for 15-20 seconds.

5. Turn the garment inside out. Press down the iron on the back of the garment where the military patch is attached. Allow the patch and garment to cool down.

Applying Military Patches – Method 4

1. Prepare an ironing board and lay your garment on top of the board.

2. Position the military patch on the garment area where you want to attach the patch.

3. Place a white bond paper on the military patch. Set the iron’s temperature setting to cotton heat or high heat. Place the iron on the white bond paper for 13 seconds.

4. Take off the white bond paper and set aside the iron. Try to lift off the military patch by using your fingers. If you can lift the patch, repeat steps 4-5 until you can no longer lift it.

5. Turn the garment inside out before laying it on the ironing board. Touch the garment until you can feel the area where the military patch is attached.

6. Press the iron on the back of the military patch for 13 seconds. Let the clothing and patch cool down.

Always determine what kind of backing your military patches have. Doing this will help you know if these application methods can be used.

The Advantages of Using Portable Storage Containers

September 30th, 2014

Choosing portable storage containers for personal use has become popular in recent years. It used to be that these containers are only seen in port areas for shipping purposes, but they have found their way to homes and even offices for a variety of purposes and here are the reasons why they are considered as smart choices.

Versatile Uses

Portable storage containers are not just for storing your belongings. Although it might be its prime purpose, today you can also see these containers turn into bedrooms, office spaces, work areas, and even garages. Whether you need the storage container for a short period or permanently, there are no worries since they can be rented or bought. They also come in various sizes to accommodate different quantities of items. In short, this steel box can serve various purposes in any industry or for any home.

Cheap Alternative

Just imagine if you decide to build an additional room for your home made of concrete, wood and steel. The materials and labor alone can cost you thousands of dollars, which is why many homeowners postpone any renovation project. With portable storage containers, your problem is solved right away for a cheaper cost. There will be no construction process that could take several weeks nor the risk of facing a stressful task of handling several laborers. All you have to do is find a reliable provider of portable storage containers, specify the size that you need or any customization that you require, sign the contract and wait for them to deliver it to your home.

Sturdy Material

Portable storage containersThese containers are made of steel, so expect them to last a long time. With proper maintenance, the portable storage container that you buy now can stay useful for many years and once you do not need it anymore, you can still sell it. Because of their sturdy build, they are ideal as exterior storage spaces, as you can rely on them to protect your belongings from the elements.

Easy Moving

When transferring residences, many people hire a van or a moving company. The trucks used for these, however, are usually not big enough to fit all your belongings so what happens is you load it several times. That translates to high fuel costs and waste of time. Try renting a storage container next time you move. They are big enough to haul your furniture, appliances and other items in one trip to make your transfer fast, efficient, and cost-effective.

Customize as you Please

Buying a storage container means that you already have ownership of it, thus you can do whatever you want with it. For instance, you can add holes for the windows and AC unit and maybe change the large doors into smaller ones. These ideas are ideal if you plan to turn the container into an office space, a study room, or even a bedroom. You can then paint it in any color to blend well with your main house’s design. If you want it to be a garage, just add a sliding door to it. Basically, you can renovate and redesign it any way you want to meet you specific need.

Secured Storage Space

With the right locking systems in place, the steel container can be a secure storage space for your precious belongings. You do not have to worry about thieves getting into it even if it is sitting outside of your home. You can even install an alarm to it if you like.

Of course, you cannot underestimate its portability feature, which allows you to transfer it from one area to another with no problem at all. These containers are equipped with wheels that you can lock for safety purposes and then unlock if you want to move them. That is like having an added wing to your home that can be re-arranged as you please. For these reasons, it is just right that you consider portable containers or cubicles the next time you ever need additional space at home or in your office.

The Ultimate Guide to Buying Trading Pins

September 16th, 2014

If you plan to buy baseball pins or any other trading pins, you may want to check out this article first. In this article, you will find different tips in buying trading pins and at the latter part you will find the different types of backsides that are available for your trading pins.

The first thing that you should consider before buying baseball pins or any other trading pins is the quantity. The number of trading pins that you will buy will have a big impact on the total cost of your trading pins. The more pins you buys, the lesser the total cost of the trading pins. The next thing to consider is the type and size of the trading pin.

The usual size for baseball pins is around 1.75” to 2” and the usual process is the soft enamel process. The materials used for the creation of the trading pin also have a big impact on the cost of the trading pins. The costs of the pins are also higher whenever you add additional designs or accessories to your trading pin.

Baseball pinsThe additional designs or accessories may cost from as low as $0.20 to as high as $1.75. The most popular accessories are the danglers and spinners as well as blinkies and glitter. The third factor that you should consider is the colors that would be used in your trading pins. It will cost you more especially if you use a lot of colors because each color you add is equivalent to another extra charge. Usually, trading pin manufacturers allows you to pick 7 colors without additional charges. There will also be a higher charge if you would like to rush your orders. Usually, it takes around 4-15 days to be able to receive the finished product but if you want your pins to be manufactured as soon as possible, then you have to pay more.

It is also important to choose the right type of backside for your baseball pins or other trading pins because it will be the one to hold the pin to its place. The first type of backside is the butterfly clutch or the military clutch. In this type of backside, you will find a small point attached at the back of the pin. To release the pin from the clutch you will just squeeze the butterfly clutch and pull it upwards from the prong. Usually, metals, rubbers and plastics are used to create this type of backside. Another type of backside for your trading pin is called the jewelry clutch. To be able to lock the clutch, it must be covered by the prong. The third type of backside is the safety clasp. This type of backside contains a long pin prong which is used to keep in the pin in place whenever it is put under a small hook or clasp.

Another type of backside is called the magnetic clasp. This type of backside is composed of a tiny disc magnet which is used to attract another magnet which is located at the backside of the trading pin. This type of backside is advisable for people who hate having holes in their clothes because this type of backside prevents hole stabs in the clothes because it does not have any sharp pins. Another type of backside is called the screw and nut. It is considered as one of the safest type of backside since the point is threaded and the nut is turned into place to so that it secures the pin into place. The last type of backside is called the stick pin wherein it has a thin needle which also has a collar that is used to lock or open the pin. To be able to lock the pin, the needle must go upwards and to lock the pin, the needle must downwards.

Exposing The Truth and Fallacies of Algorithm Punishments With The Assistance of A SEO Company

August 27th, 2014

It’s not just politics that gets a lot of fallacies thrown at it. There’s a lot of conspiracy theories that abound within the world of marketing, and that’s not going to change anytime soon. You will find yourself in the midst of conjecture more often than not if you try to chase the DIY mentality of exposure within these pages. Too often, people assume that the easiest way to traverse the modern world of marketing is to work at it through the framework of isolation, and only a few little things here and there. Once upon a time, yes, it was easy to work with search engine marketing and you could get a deluge of traffic without doing a whole lot. However, today, that is not the case and you will find that when you hire a SEO company, things can change for the better, but only if you hire a good company that knows what they are doing.

The Many True and False Elements of SEO

SEOThe first thing that you should know about search engine optimization today is simple, there is a lot of conjecture involved with what works and what doesn’t. It’s easy to see what is not going to help you, as it will be manifested within the many blogs and pages that are published across the internet. Look online for information related to what works and what doesn’t within the realms of SEO and you will get hit with so much information, it will be problematic to move forward with. With so much fallacy getting spread through the world of internet marketing, it’s easy to see that you’ll need to do more than just publish a website in order to gain leverage online. If you want traffic to come through your site, you will need to play a lot of different roles, especially if you don’t want to hire a SEO company.

Breaking Down The Fallacies

Optimization lies are all over the internet. They will convince you that you can be the first place site in search engines without doing a lot of work, and they’ll be very convincing about all sorts of other elements that are wrong. Search engine optimization lends itself to fallacies a lot because there’s a bit of intangible returns that can occur. The intangible nature of tech is definitely something worth noting. The fallacies that come through in relationship to the world of marketing is such that you will end up making a huge mistake when implementing the right protocol, according to what gurus are saying.

You can tell whether or not the advice that someone gives you online is good based on where you find it. If you’re reading the information in a forum and someone randomly tells you that you can make a lot of moves by buying bulk links, you’re going to be in for a surprise. The source of your information matters greatly, because if you trust the wrong people, you could end up falling short of the goal that you want to chase. If you want to make moves online, you absolutely need to stay away from the fallacies that are published on blogs, forums, and more.

There Is No Quick Fix

The biggest myth of all, the one that is seen across the board is that SEO is quick fix. It is not a miracle cure, it is not going to help you overcome certain elements at all, and in some cases all the work that a SEO company can do for you will end up getting unraveled fast. The problem is that optimization is a long term thing, and in the short term it’s useless. You could implement all the right changes right now and in 24 hours still see no results. You could wait months and still see nothing at all. This causes a lot of turmoil in the world of marketing, especially within circles that want to make moves forward. You will find that in order to gain leverage, you will need to be patient and you’ll need to work within the parameters of a professional optimization strategy. Without a professional building your campaigns, you’re going to be laboring in vain.

It’s important that you avoid working with any firms or agencies that are going to promise that they can get you ranked at the top of search engines fast, or that they can send a mountain of traffic your way for a small fee. Traffic generation, SEO placements, keyword generation, content management, search engine engagement, and all the other aspects of internet marketing take a lot of time and precision to get right. If you don’t believe this, then you are going to end up falling for any number of fallacies that are out there on the web.

The Truth Is Out There

If you want the truth about SEO, talk with a company that does this for clients on a regular basis. Ask them questions about the myths and truth about the world of optimization and you’ll be surprised with what you will be told. There’s a lot of room for error when it comes to marketing today, especially with the rules changing often within search engine updates.

Uses for Custom Pins

July 17th, 2014

Custom pins have become a popular item and have gained a lot of uses throughout time. It can be used for recognition, business promotions, giveaways, and other uses.

•Businesses – used as giveaways to help promote their brand and get word out to the people and potential customers or clients. They are much cheaper in the long run than advertisements on TV, radio, or other media. It is also a good way to be memorable to people.

•Employee recognitioncustom pins can be made to be given to certain employees as an award for their outstanding work or any achievements like employee of the month or similar. It helps boost morale and at the same time recognize them for their work.

Custom pins•Fundraisers – companies, non-profit organizations, and schools can make use of custom pins for their fundraising events. They are a great way to reward donations and acknowledge their contribution. The donors will be very happy to receive a pin for their efforts.

•Club or organization pin – lapel pins can be given to members of an organization so they can proudly show their affiliation by wearing it on them. This, in a way, also helps promote the organization when they see the members sporting the pin.

•Schools – there are a number of uses for custom pins in a school setting. Student organizations can give them away to spread word on them, and also can be given to members. Student political parties can also give away pins for the other students to show their support. Fraternities and sororities also make use of pins as a way of affiliation

•Military pins – these pins are used by many countries as a way to recognize their armed forces that have done excellent jobs. It is an honour for armed forces personnel to receive these pins. They can be frequently seen having it on their uniform and wearing it proudly.

•Service anniversaries – lapel pins are most often given to celebrate a service anniversary. It can be customized to display the years of service or even the name of the person who will receive it.

•Political campaigns – during political campaigns, pins and buttons are worn to show support for a certain candidate or political party.

•Promote events – lapel pins are inexpensive items that can be given away to help spread the word on an event and make people aware of it.

•Sports – sports teams have customized pins that have their logo on it and are often sold during games. Wearing one is a great way for fans to show their support.

•Boy scouts/ girl scouts – used to recognize the boys and girls who have done certain feats or award them for their achievements as a scout. It helps keep their spirits up and make them proud to be a scout.

•Reunions – during these special events, lapel pins can be given as a memento for that year’s reunion. It is a great token for the people to remember that certain reunion. They can collect their pins for each year to mark their attendance.

•Gifts – the lapel pins are great gifts for any occasion. They are special, can last a lifetime, and are really memorable and unique items.

•Collectors’ item – people have begun gathering certain pins and making a personal collection. There are a lot of different kinds of pins available from sports teams to cartoon characters and other pop culture icons. There are even specially made pins for collectors. Events have been made for the purpose of showcasing, buying, and trading lapel pins with other enthusiasts. These venues are also a great way to interact with other pin collectors.

Things to Consider Before Buying Golf Clubs

June 28th, 2014

The charm of golf lies on the intense concentration and control needed to create a good hit. It makes use of muscle power and mind power, while still being open to people from all ages. The lush greens of a golf course can easily turn a gaming session into a relaxing getaway from the city, and is also an opportunity to bond with several social circles.

As a newcomer, getting geared up will have to be one of your primary concerns, however it is no secret that golf can be quite an expensive sport to play. So what are the key things that you should keep in mind before spending your dollars on your golf clubs?

a. Assess your commitment to the game – are you playing golf for sheer recreation or are you actually willing to take golf lessons to improve your game? When you find that you have enjoyed the game so much that you are willing to really hone yourself and invest more time to it, then that is the ideal time for you look into more expensive set of clubs. Otherwise, you can first settle for cheaper items or even used golf clubs.

b. Club fitting – this involves getting fitted in a pro shop to measure the dimensions of your arms, your body, your wrist, and your height. This is done in order to come up with the best set of golf clubs suited to your body structure. Standard golf clubs are made for men with the average height of 5”10, and so people who are not in this height range are advised to have themselves fitted.

Remember that your club is the extension of your arms during a game, and so playing golf can be made much easier and enjoyable with the right-sized clubs.

c. Determine the right combination of materials – there are two basic types of shaft: graphite and steel. Graphite is known for its ‘kindness’ to the arms because of its ability to flex and its light weight. Steel, on the other hand is stiff and favors faster swingers. It also has a stronger vibration feedback upon a hit, which is quite a matter of preference for the player as some would want this kind of response while others are quite uncomfortable with it.

cgc-1Graphite is normally advised for beginners as its flex is able to create longer drives even with slower spins.

The club head material is also important. Titanium is the most expensive due to its strength and light weight. These are also known to have wider-faced club heads, creating a larger ‘sweet spot’ to gain a larger probability of hitting the ball correctly. It also has cheaper counterparts like steel and titanium alloys, which are just as strong but is considerably heavier.

Graphite shafts with titanium heads are an excellent combination for beginners or players who need to improve their game as these types of clubs are easy to handle and control, and allow for very long drives.

d. Shop around and do not be afraid to seek opinion – Because golf is quite an expensive sport, it always helps to check out several local stores and even online forums to get the best deal of club sets. At a minimum, you will only need one driver, two fairway woods, two irons, a pitching wedge, and a putter.

It is also a great idea to consult a local golf pro or salespeople in shops, and even your fellow golf enthusiasts. These are the people who can see your play in a more regular basis, are more familiar with the golf course, and would have a better idea on the kind of golf clubs that you would need.

The PCB assembly process in a nutshell

June 26th, 2014

PCB assembly refers to the process of mounting and interconnecting electrical and physical components on a printed circuit board – a piece of fibreglass material that is usually colored green and bears copper-made conductor patterns. There are two basic PCB assembly processes: through-hole assembly and surface mount assembly.

pcb-2The choice and combination of components is the primary determinant as to which assembly process and sequence is to be carried out. Through-hole assembly is used to mount relatively large components whereby their terminals are manually inserted through holes in the PCB and selectively wave soldered on the opposite side of the board. The surface mount assembly is intended for relatively small components whose mounting requires automated assembly equipment to solder their terminals to the conductive tracks on the PCB surface.

Through-hole assembly

In general, there are four stages in the through-hole assembly process. First, the pin-through-hole components are carefully cropped and formed to fit in their designated holes in the PCB. Second, the components are manually inserted into the board and held by a variety of methods to prevent movement during the soldering stage. Third, solder is applied to bond the circuit board and the components’ terminals. Lastly, the assembled circuit board undergoes cleaning process to remove any residues of flux applied.

Surmount mount assembly

Like through-hole assembly process, surface mount assembly process consists of four stages. First, solder paste is applied to the PCB with the help of a stencil. Second, the components are mechanically placed on the board using a ‘chip shooter’ and held by the paste deposits. Third, the circuit board with the components mounted is heated in a reflow oven to permanently bond the components’ terminals with the board. Lastly, the assembled circuit board likewise undergoes cleaning to remove flux residues.

Differences between surface mount and through-hole

With regard to both board and soldering practices, there are significant differences between through-hole assembly and surface mount assembly. The components mounted using the through-hole assembly are mechanically held together prior to soldering to ensure that that the surfaces to be soldered are in contact. As the solder forms the electrical joints, the mechanical joints become stronger. In contrast, components mounted using the surface mount assembly are weakly held by the solder paste, i.e. the components merely stick on the board and the permanent joint is formed by the solder alone once the solder paste reflows in the reflow oven.

Combined assembly processes

Nowadays, PCB assembly processes are combined, that is PCBs contain both pin-through-hole and surface mount components. There are three assembly variations that are widely used today. By convention, they are called Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 processes. The Type 1 process is basically the surface mount process. The Type 2 process is whereby pin-through-hole components are mounted on the top surface of the board and surface mount components on the bottom surface. The Type 3 process is whereby pin-through-hole components are mounted on the top surface and surface mount components on both sides. The choice of PCB assembly process is dependent on the components’ mechanical build and their ability to withstand processing.

The Type 3 process in general

In the Type 3 process whereby surface mounted components are to be placed on both sides of the board, it is common to separate soldering on the top and bottom sides. To do this, surface mount assembly process is performed first on the top side followed by the insertion of pin-through-hole components. Then, adhesive is applied to hold the components, the board is inverted and the surface mount process is done on this side. Finally, the through-hole process is completed by wave soldering the pins and removing the adhesives.

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